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Welcome: Prof. Margit Schwikowski"Montana" (Conference Centre "Le Régent")
Conference Centre "Le Régent"
Glacial / interglacial dynamics, interglacials, and sea level: INTRODUCTION
Melt‐induced fractionation of major ions and trace elements in an Alpine snowpack20m
Understanding the impact of melting on the preservation of atmospheric compounds in high‐Alpine snow and glacier ice is crucial for future reconstruction of past atmospheric conditions. However, detailed studies investigating melt‐related changes of such proxy information are rare. Here we present a series of five snow pit profiles of 6 major ions and 34 trace elements at Weissfluhjoch, Switzerland, collected between January and June 2017. Atmospheric composition was preserved during the cold season, while melting toward the summer resulted in preferential loss of certain species from the snowpack or enrichment at the base of the snowpack. Increasing mobilization of major ions with meltwater (NH4+ < Cl− ~ Na+ < NO3− ~ Ca2+ ~ SO42−) can be related to their stronger enrichment at ice crystal surfaces during snow metamorphism. Results for trace elements show that less abundant elements such as Ce, Eu, La, Mo, Nd, Pb, Pr, Sb, Sc, Sm, U, and W were best preserved.
(Paul Scherrer Institute)
Disproportionately strong climate forcing from extratropical explosive volcanic eruptions20m
Extratropical volcanic eruptions are commonly thought to be less effective at driving large-scale surface cooling than tropical eruptions. However, recent minor extratropical eruptions have produced a measurable climate impact, and proxy records suggest that the most extreme Northern Hemisphere cold period of the Common Era was initiated by an extratropical eruption in 536 CE. Using ice-core-derived volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and Northern Hemisphere summer temperature reconstructions from tree rings, we show here that in proportion to their estimated stratospheric sulfur injection, extratropical explosive eruptions since 750 CE have produced stronger hemispheric cooling than tropical eruptions. Stratospheric aerosol simulations demonstrate that for eruptions with a sulfur injection magnitude and height equal to that of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption, extratropical eruptions produce time-integrated radiative